Zonulin is a protein molecule that regulates the permeability of the intercellular tight junctions in the intestinal wall. When it binds to specific receptors on the cell surface it stimulates the tight junctions to open and as a result increases intestinal permeability. Increased permeability in the intestines allows larger molecules such as bacteria and their byproducts (lipopolysaccharides LPS), yeast and other compounds into the bloodstream. This may lead to allergic responses and other immune activation. Inflammatory compounds released from immune cells is now recognized as a major source of chronic inflammation leading to metabolic disruption and is regarded as a major factor in unhealthy aging and chronic health issues.
Histamine intolerance is thought to be related to a build-up of histamine. In a healthy individual, histamine is broken down by two enzymes – diamine oxidase (DAO) and histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT). Symptoms may occur when one of these enzymes are not working correctly or if histamine production is triggered through gene activation due to chronic immune